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Body Region



Examination of the Cervical Spine:  Part 1

Examination of the Cervical Spine: Part 1

We all know that as the most mobile region of the vertebral column the cervical spine is vulnerable to trauma, as well as to problems of apparently spontaneous onset. Determining the source of the problem is essential before selecting a treatment regime.


Part 1 and 2 of this correspondence course provides a comprehensive guide to the examination of the cervical spine and clinically associated anatomical regions.


The physical examination section is reinforced with 10 photographs that will assist you with the performance of the examination and treatment techniques.

3

CEUs

0.00

Fascia: Surgery and scarring

Fascia: Surgery and scarring

Although all wounds pass through the same mechanism of repair towards full recovery, the final cosmetic and functional result may differ markedly. As a physiotherapist, is there anything you can do to make a difference to the healing process and the restoration of tissue integrity?

This course will provide some answers.

3

CEUs

400.00

Concussion in the Sport Position Statement:  Part 1

Concussion in the Sport Position Statement: Part 1

There has been growing concern locally and internationally about the incidence of sport-related concussion and potential health ramifications for athletes. If managed appropriately most symptoms and signs of concussion resolve spontaneously, however complications can occur including prolonged duration of symptoms and increased susceptibility to further injury. There is also growing concern about potential long-term consequences of multiple concussions. 

This course will provide you with information regarding the timely recognition and appropriate management of sport-related concussion. It will also provide you with clear, unequivocal and reliable information to be readily accessible to all members of the community.

This Position Statement on Concussion in Sport brings together the most contemporary evidence-based information and presents it in a format that is appropriate for all stakeholders. This e-Learning course seeks to ensure that all members of the public have rapid access to information to increase their understanding of sport-related concussion and to assist in the delivery of best practice medical care.

Testimonials:

Excellent value for my practice.  Netsie Hamilton-Attwell, Physiotherapist, Darling 

Good value for my practice.  Khumbuza Reagan Cele, Physiotherapist, Stellenbosch

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Treating Low Back Pain - Bridging the Gap between Manual Therapy and Exercise

NEW - Treating Low Back Pain - Bridging the Gap between Manual Therapy and Exercise

As therapists, we often recommend exercise to reduce patients’ low-back pain, as well as increase their active range of motion and muscle strength. However, physical therapists face a challenge when recommending exercise to reduce low-back pain because the pain itself often inhibits the patient’s ability to exercise or perform activities of daily living. This situation becomes even more challenging if the prescribed exercise progam aggravates the individual’s low-back pain.  

This article discusses a method which provides for the effective treatment of low back pain by allowing patients to exercise pain free earlier in the rehabilitation process.  The method comprises a unique approach utilizing the following four components simultaneously from the onset of treatment: isometric muscle contraction (IMC); assisted active oscillatory mobilization; end-of-range passive stretch; and mindfulness.

Testimonials:  

Excellent value for my practice.  Jo-ane Paulsen, Physiotherapist, George

Excellent value for my practice.  Dwayne Phillips, Physiotherapist, Cape Town 

Excellent value for my practice.  Heather Auditore, Physiotherapist, Groot Jongensfontein

Good value for my practice.  Ashwin Jacobs, State Employed Physiotherapist, Port Elizabeth 

Good value for my practice.  Anri Matthee, Community Service Physiotherapist, Vredenburg 

Excellent value for my practice.   Rushay Arendse, State Employed Physiotherapist, Uitenhage 

Excellent value for my practice.  Amore Barry, Physiotherapist, Calitzdorp 

Good value for my practice.  Patrizia Van Zyl, Physiotherapist, Ashton 

Excellent value for my practice.  Carin McDonald, Physiotherapist, George

3

CEUs

400.00

Examination of the Cervical Spine: Part 2

Examination of the Cervical Spine: Part 2

We all know that as the most mobile region of the vertebral column the cervical spine is vulnerable to trauma, as well as to problems of apparently spontaneous onset. Determining the source of the problem is essential before selecting a treatment regime. 

Part 1 and 2 of this correspondence course provides a comprehensive guide to the examination of the cervical spine and clinically associated anatomical regions. 

The physical examination section is reinforced with 10 photographs that will assist you with the performance of the examination and treatment techniques.

Testimonial:

Excellent value for my practice.  Sharon Rossouw, Physiotherapist, Cape Town

3

CEUs

400.00

Fascial Plasticity - A New Neurobiological Explanation

Fascial Plasticity - A New Neurobiological Explanation

In myofascial manipulation an immediate tissue release is often felt under the working hand. This amazing feature has traditionally been attributed to mechanical properties of the connective tissue. But is that all it is? What is required to permanent viscoelastic deformation of fascia. Should we not be moving away from a purely mechanical perspective toward a more inclusive, broader approach?

This course introduces some of the latest thinking in this arena.

3

CEUs

400.00

0.00

Concussion in the Sport Position Statement: Part 2

Concussion in the Sport Position Statement: Part 2

There has been growing concern locally and internationally about the incidence of sport-related concussion and potential health ramifications for athletes. If managed appropriately most symptoms and signs of concussion resolve spontaneously, however complications can occur including prolonged duration of symptoms and increased susceptibility to further injury. There is also growing concern about potential long-term consequences of multiple concussions. 

This course will provide you with information regarding the timely recognition and appropriate management of sport-related concussion. It will also provide you with clear, unequivocal and reliable information to be readily accessible to all members of the community.

This Position Statement on Concussion in Sport brings together the most contemporary evidence-based information and presents it in a format that is appropriate for all stakeholders. This e-Learning course seeks to ensure that all members of the public have rapid access to information to increase their understanding of sport-related concussion and to assist in the delivery of best practice medical care.

Testimonial:

Excellent value for my practice.  Khumbuza Reagan Cele, Physiotherapist, Stellenbosch

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Treating Low Back Pain – Movement Therapy Approach

NEW - Treating Low Back Pain – Movement Therapy Approach

As therapists, we often recommend exercise to reduce patients’ low-back pain, as well as increase their active range of motion and muscle strength. However, physical therapists face a challenge when recommending exercise to reduce low-back pain because the pain itself often inhibits the patient’s ability to exercise or perform activities of daily living. This situation becomes even more challenging if the prescribed exercise progam aggravates the individual’s low-back pain.  

This article discusses a method which provides for the effective treatment of low back pain by allowing patients to exercise pain free earlier in the rehabilitation process.  The method comprises a unique approach utilizing the following four components simultaneously from the onset of treatment: isometric muscle contraction (IMC); assisted active oscillatory movement; end-of-range passive stretch; and mindfulness.

3

CEUs

400.00

Treating Patellar Tendinopathy with Fascial Manipulation

Treating Patellar Tendinopathy with Fascial Manipulation

What causes patellar tendon pain? Is treating the patellar tendon the most effective means of treatment?

This course examines the response of 18 patients suffering from patellar tendon pain to a technique previously not used for this complaint. The results were impressive: a substantial decrease in pain immediately after treatment which remained unchanged or improved in the short term.

3

CEUs

400.00

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 1

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 1

How do you isolate the syndromes or conditions that could result in diagnoses like Zygapophyseal Joint Arthralgia, Zygapophyseal joint – acute locking, recurrent locking of cervical Zygapophyseal joints, discogenic pain and cervical nerve root pain? How do you select the most appropriate treatment modality?


These on-line courses discuss some essential concepts every physiotherapist needs in his/her arsenal when faced with some of the common cervical conditions for which manipulative therapy and exercises have a major role in over-all management.

3

CEUs

0.00

Deep Dry Needling of the Head

Deep Dry Needling of the Head

Deep Dry Needling of the Head

This illustrated Dry Needling online course covers:


The clinical presentation of TrPs in head and neck pain syndromes
Trigger points (TrPs) in headache and orofacial pain populations
Myofascial TrPs in temporomandibular pain
Myofascial TrPs in tension-type headache
Myofascial TrPs in migraine
Myofascial TrPs in other headaches


Illustration and needling instructions of Dry Needling techniques for the following head muscles are provided:

Zygomatic muscle
Lateral muscle
Pterygoid muscle
Digastric muscle
Corrugator supercilii muscle
Procerus muscle
Masseter muscle
Temporalis muscle

Their anatomy, function, innervation and contra-indications for Dry Needling are also included.

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain:  Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 1

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain: Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 1

Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial nonpharmacological treatment, including education that supports self-management and resumption of normal activities and exercise, and psychological programmes for those with persistent symptoms. 

However, globally, gaps between evidence and practice exist, with limited use of recommended first-line treatments and inappropriately high use of imaging, rest, opioids, spinal injections, and surgery. The advances with the greatest potential are arguably those that align practice with the evidence, reduce the focus on spinal abnormalities, and ensure promotion of activity and function, including work participation. 

We have identified effective, promising, or emerging solutions that could offer new directions.

3

CEUs

400.00

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 2

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 2

How do you isolate the syndromes or conditions that could result in diagnoses like Zygapophyseal Joint Arthralgia, Zygapophyseal joint – acute locking, recurrent locking of cervical Zygapophyseal joints, discogenic pain and cervical nerve root pain? How do you select the most appropriate treatment modality?

 


These on-line courses discuss some essential concepts every physiotherapist needs in his/her arsenal when faced with some of the common cervical conditions for which manipulative therapy and exercises have a major role in over-all management.

3

CEUs

400.00

0.00

The Fascia of the Limbs and Back - Part 1

The Fascia of the Limbs and Back - Part 1

Fascia have long interested clinicians in a multitude of different clinical and paramedical disciplines and with good reason. This article, which provides an anatomical perspective that extends from the gross to the molecular level, deals with fascia in the limbs and back, with particular focus on deep fascia.

Among the many functions of fascia considered in detail are its ectoskeletal role (as a soft tissue skeleton for muscle attachments), its importance for creating osteofascial compartments for muscles, encouraging venous return in the lower limb, dissipating stress concentration at enthesis and acting as a protective sheet for underlying structures.

Testimonial:

Good value for my practice.  Sharon Rossouw, Physiotherapist, Cape Town

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain:  Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 2

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain: Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 2

Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial nonpharmacological treatment, including education that supports self-management and resumption of normal activities and exercise, and psychological programmes for those with persistent symptoms. 

However, globally, gaps between evidence and practice exist, with limited use of recommended first-line treatments and inappropriately high use of imaging, rest, opioids, spinal injections, and surgery. The advances with the greatest potential are arguably those that align practice with the evidence, reduce the focus on spinal abnormalities, and ensure promotion of activity and function, including work participation. 

We have identified effective, promising, or emerging solutions that could offer new directions.

3

CEUs

400.00

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 3

Rehabilitation of Cervical Syndromes: Part 3

How do you isolate the syndromes or conditions that could result in diagnoses like Zygapophyseal Joint Arthralgia, Zygapophyseal joint – acute locking, recurrent locking of cervical Zygapophyseal joints, discogenic pain and cervical nerve root pain? How do you select the most appropriate treatment modality?

 

These on-line courses discuss some essential concepts every physiotherapist needs in his/her arsenal when faced with some of the common cervical conditions for which manipulative therapy and exercises have a major role in over-all management.

3

CEUs

400.00

The Fascia of the Limbs and Back - Part 2

The Fascia of the Limbs and Back - Part 2

Fascia have long interested clinicians in a multitude of different clinical and paramedical disciplines and with good reason. This article, which provides an anatomical perspective that extends from the gross to the molecular level, deals with fascia in the limbs and back, with particular focus on deep fascia.

Among the many functions of fascia considered in detail are its ectoskeletal role (as a soft tissue skeleton for muscle attachments), its importance for creating osteofascial compartments for muscles, encouraging venous return in the lower limb, dissipating stress concentration at enthesis and acting as a protective sheet for underlying structures.

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain:  Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 3

NEW - Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain: Evidence, Challenges and Promising Directions - Part 3

Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial nonpharmacological treatment, including education that supports self-management and resumption of normal activities and exercise, and psychological programmes for those with persistent symptoms. 

However, globally, gaps between evidence and practice exist, with limited use of recommended first-line treatments and inappropriately high use of imaging, rest, opioids, spinal injections, and surgery. The advances with the greatest potential are arguably those that align practice with the evidence, reduce the focus on spinal abnormalities, and ensure promotion of activity and function, including work participation. 

We have identified effective, promising, or emerging solutions that could offer new directions.

3

CEUs

400.00

The Cervical Spine and Headache: Part 1

The Cervical Spine and Headache: Part 1

Did you know that Cervicogenic headache probably accounts for between 10 and 20% of benign headaches? Did you know that there is a growing body of evidence that multimodal physical therapy can assist these patients?

Fundamental to the successful management of cervicogenic headache is the differential diagnosis of headache.

3

CEUs

400.00

Fascial Anatomy in Manual Therapy: Introducing New Biomechanical Model.

Fascial Anatomy in Manual Therapy: Introducing New Biomechanical Model.

Fascial anatomy studies influence our understanding of musculoskeletal dysfunctions. However, evidenced-based models for manual therapists working with movement dysfunction and pain are still developing. This review presents a synthesis of one biomechanical model and discusses underlying hypotheses in reference to some current trends in musculoskeletal research.


This information could introduce new perspectives to clinicians involved in the manual treatment of musculoskeletal dysfunctions.

3

CEUs

400.00

NEW - Which Specific Modes of Exercise Training are Most Effective for Treating Low Back Pain

NEW - Which Specific Modes of Exercise Training are Most Effective for Treating Low Back Pain

Objective Examine the effectiveness of specific modes of exercise training in non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). 

Summary/conclusion There is low quality evidence that Pilates, stabilisation/motor control, resistance training and aerobic exercise training are the most effective treatments, pending outcome of interest, for adults with NSCLBP. Exercise training may also be more effective than therapist hands-on treatment. 

3

CEUs

400.00

Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine - Part 1

Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine - Part 1

Because low back pain can involve a multitude of factors, how you examine your LBP patients is critical.

In part 1 of this course, we look at the factors that warrant consideration for their possible presence and role in a patient’s low back disorder.We also pay attention to non-musculoskeletal pathology, mechanical factors, ageing and degeneration, structural anomalies and muscle dysfunction.

Part 2 covers the objective examination of the lumbar spine and includes observation, interpretation and analysis of active movements, neurological testing, tension tests, manual segmental examination, muscular examination and the interpretation of the conclusion of the examination.

Testimonial:

Good value for my practice.  Amy Smythe, Physiotherapist, Ladysmith

3

CEUs

400.00

The Cervical Spine and Headache:  Part 2

The Cervical Spine and Headache: Part 2

Did you know that Cervicogenic headache probably accounts for between 10 and 20% of benign headaches? Did you know that there is a growing body of evidence that multimodal physical therapy can assist these patients?

 

Fundamental to the successful management of cervicogenic headache is the differential diagnosis of headache.

 

Part two of this course describes the physical examination of the headache patient and covers the articular, the muscle systems, the neuro motor control, muscle strength and postural form. It also deals with the management of cervicogenic headache utilising manual therapy, therapeutic exercise and more.

3

CEUs

400.00

Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine - Part 2

Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine - Part 2

Because low back pain can involve a multitude of factors, how you examine your LBP patients is critical.

In part 1 of this course, we look at the factors that warrant consideration for their possible presence and role in a patient’s low back disorder.We also pay attention to non-musculoskeletal pathology, mechanical factors, ageing and degeneration, structural anomalies and muscle dysfunction.

Part 2 covers the objective examination of the lumbar spine and includes observation, interpretation and analysis of active movements, neurological testing, tension tests, manual segmental examination, muscular examination and the interpretation of the conclusion of the examination.

3

CEUs

400.00

Whiplash associated disorders: implications for management:Part 1

Whiplash associated disorders: implications for management:Part 1

Whiplash. It can happen so easily yet its consequences can be long lasting and debilitating. This course provides an insight into the complex set of mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic WAD.

It also highlights the facts physiotherapists need to take into account when dealing with both the acute and chronic stages of WAD in order to reduce chronicity associated with this condition.

3

CEUs

400.00

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 1

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 1

Here’s a method that’s been proved to assist millions of people worldwide to reduce and eliminate musculoskeletal disorders - empowering patients to take control of their own symptoms and management, getting them pain free as quickly and cost effectively as possible.

It can also establish a patient’s directional preference and determine movements likely to help abolish the pain and restore function.

This three-part course, which must be taken together, is a must for any professional who treats back and neck pain.

Testimonial:

Good value for my practice.  Khumbuza Reagan Cele, Physiotherapist, Stellenbosch

3

CEUs

400.00

Whiplash associated disorders: implications for management: Part 2

Whiplash associated disorders: implications for management: Part 2

Whiplash. It can happen so easily yet its consequences can be long lasting and debilitating. This course provides an insight into the complex set of mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic WAD.

 

It also highlights the facts physiotherapists need to take into account when dealing with both the acute and chronic stages of WAD in order to reduce chronicity associated with this condition.

3

CEUs

400.00

Adverse Effects of Cervical Manipulative Therapy

Adverse Effects of Cervical Manipulative Therapy

It’s every physiotherapist’s worst nightmare: something going horribly wrong during examination and treatment of a patient.

 

This course examines the issue of neurovascular complications such as vertebrobasilar arterial dissection following Cervical Manipulative Therapy and evaluates whether or how physiotherapists can avoid or prevent the nightmare.

3

CEUs

400.00

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 2

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 2

Here’s a method that’s been proved to assist millions of people worldwide to reduce and eliminate musculoskeletal disorders - empowering patients to take control of their own symptoms and management, getting them pain free as quickly and cost effectively as possible.

It can also establish a patient’s directional preference and determine movements likely to help abolish the pain and restore function.

This three-part course, which must be taken together, is a must for any professional who treats back and neck pain.

Testimonial:

Good value for my practice.  Khumbuza Reagan Cele, Physiotherapist, Stellenbosch

3

CEUs

400.00

Cervicogenic Dizziness – Integrated Approach

Cervicogenic Dizziness – Integrated Approach

Dizziness is an extremely common complaint yet is also a very difficult condition to diagnose – and therefore to treat. This on-line course demonstrates how manual therapy can substantially reduce symptoms of cervicogenic dizziness.

3

CEUs

400.00

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 3

Management of Mechanical Low Back Pain. A Comprehensive Approach: Part 3

Here’s a method that’s been proved to assist millions of people worldwide to reduce and eliminate musculoskeletal disorders - empowering patients to take control of their own symptoms and management, getting them pain free as quickly and cost effectively as possible.

It can also establish a patient’s directional preference and determine movements likely to help abolish the pain and restore function.

This three-part course, which must be taken together, is a must for any professional who treats back and neck pain.

Testimonial:

Good value for my practice.  Khumbuza Reagan Cele, Physiotherapist, Stellenbosch

3

CEUs

400.00

Cervicogenic Headaches – Integrated Approach.

Cervicogenic Headaches – Integrated Approach.

Headache is a common and often incapacitating condition. It is estimated that a headache in some form is experienced by at least 50% of the population, often leading to a visit to a general practitioner or physiotherapist. The number of structures and disorders capable of causing headaches is considerable. This on-line course describes a case study of a patient with chronic headaches which had not been helped by range of previous interventions given by the patient’s GP, Neurologist and other healthcare professionals. The course will teach you/or show you a thorough assessment and subsequently effective evidence based treatment. The neurophysiological effect of the treatment is provided.

3

CEUs

400.00

The Effectiveness of Generalised and Specific Lumbar/Cervical Mobilisation on Pain and ROM

The Effectiveness of Generalised and Specific Lumbar/Cervical Mobilisation on Pain and ROM

What interventions do you use to treat spinal pain? Joint mobilisation? Anything else? Do you focus on a specific level? Why? Is there perhaps a better way to do things?

The problem with joint mobilisation is that – on its own – it’s not all that well understood, which could be why it is routinely used in conjunction with other interventions. There is also a great deal of controversy about the role of ‘specific level’ techniques in producing benefit.


This course will examine the effects of a single session of joint mobilization on pain at rest and with most painful movement, and compare the effects when joint mobilization is provided to a specific or non-specific spinal level.

3

CEUs

The Sacro-Iliac Joint - Part 1

The Sacro-Iliac Joint - Part 1

We all know that physical factors impact joint motion. But what factors influence the actual mechanics of the joint? Are they purely “mechanical”, or could something else be at play?

This course briefly outlines the assessment findings and the principles for management of the various factors that impact function of the SIJ. It also provides a comprehensive methodology for the effective management of pelvic pain and dysfunction.

Testimonial:

****  Excellent value for my practice.  Candice Hall, Biokineticist, Cape Town


3

CEUs

400.00

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical Radiculopathy

If a patient suffers with neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities, it could be the result of cervical radiculopathy. 

This course examines the condition from a pathoanatomical perspective in order to help you to diagnose and then formulate the most appropriate treatment modality.

Testimonial:

****  Excellent value for my practice.  Rosey McLean, Physiotherapist, Johannesburg


3

CEUs

400.00

Deep Dry Needling of the Neck

Deep Dry Needling of the Neck

This illustrated Dry Needling online course covers:

  • the clinical presentation of TrPs in head and neck pain syndromes
  • trigger points (TrPs) in neck pain populations

Illustration and needling instructions of Dry Needling techniques for the following neck muscles are provided:

  • Trapezius muscle: upper portion
  • Levator scapulae muscle
  • Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  • Splenius capitis muscle
  • Splenius cervicis muscle
  • Semispinalis capitis and cervicis muscles
  • Suboccipital muscles
  • Cervical multifidi muscle
  • Scalene muscles

Their anatomy, function, innervation and contra-indications for Dry Needling are also included.

Testimonial:

Excellent value for my practice.  Marianne Fourie, Physiotherapist, Klerksdorp

3

CEUs

400.00

The Sacro-Iliac Joint - Part 2

The Sacro-Iliac Joint - Part 2

We all know that physical factors impact joint motion. But what factors influence the actual mechanics of the joint? Are they purely “mechanical”, or could something else be at play?


This course briefly outlines the assessment findings and the principles for management of the various factors that impact function of the SIJ. It also provides a comprehensive methodology for the effective management of pelvic pain and dysfunction

3

CEUs

400.00

Low Back Related-Leg Pain

Low Back Related-Leg Pain

Low back pain and leg pain, like love and marriage, usually go together like a horse and carriage. The key for the practitioner is to differentiate between the two in order to make an appropriate diagnosis and identify the underlying pathology.


This course introduces a systematic approach to assist with the diagnosis and classification of LBP patients in order to provide a more effective, appropriate treatment.

3

CEUs

400.00

Deep Dry Needling of the Thoracic / Lumbar

Deep Dry Needling of the Thoracic / Lumbar

This illustrated Dry Needling online course covers the clinical relevance of trigger points in syndromes related to the thoracic lumbar.


Illustration and needling instructions of Dry Needling techniques for the following thoracic lumbar muscles are provided:


Clinical relevance of trigger points (TrPs) in syndromes related to the trunk
Dry needling of the trunk muscles
Longissimus thoracis muscle
Iliocostalis thoracis and lumborum muscles
Thoracic and lumbar multifidus muscles
Serratus posterior inferior muscle
Quadratus lumborum Rectus abdominus muscle
External and internal oblique muscles

Their anatomy, function, innervation and contra-indications for Dry Needling are also included.

3

CEUs

400.00